WIFI Pineapple Nano is a nice tiny device to do Wireless Security Auditing. It has OpenWRT embedded as SO with 2 Wireless NIC pre-configured and a lot of Security tools pre-installed ready to perform a Security Wireless Auditing.
The idea of this post is to do a quick wardriving around of the Mobile World Congress at Barcelona to check if the attendants are aware about their Mobile Devices with the leak of information.
At the end, after wardriving, you will get these files (
xyz.pcapdump), with these files you will can identify the Manufacturer of the device (or model), the geo-position and route followed aproximadely and other information related signal quality.
The software and devices I’ve used are the following:
- WIFI Pineapple Nano
- Android Mobile Phone’s GPS
- Share GPS App for Android
- JuiceSSH App for Android
- Kismet (Client and Server) installed in WIFI Pineapple Nano
- Aukey 20000mAh Portable External Battery
Obviously I have initialised my Pineapple Nano previously and have updated the firmware. But if you haven’t already done so, I recommend the next guide.
The next steps are if you have initialised Pineapple Nano.
1) Connect to WIFI Pineapple and prepare everything
By using USB cable, connect the Pineapple Nano to your PC, in my case I’m using a Virtualbox VM with Kali Linux.
Then, from a Kali Linux (the best Linux distro for Security Audit) terminal will get the
wp6.sh script and will connect to Pineapple Nano.
wp6.sh can be downloaded from here: https://github.com/hak5darren/wp6
After that, open your browser in your Kali Linux and connect to
From the Pineapple Web Admin console, insert the SD and format It. After that, verify if SD was formatted successfully.
root@Pineapple:~# df -h Filesystem Size Used Available Use% Mounted on rootfs 2.3M 900.0K 1.4M 39% / /dev/root 12.5M 12.5M 0 100% /rom tmpfs 29.9M 3.6M 26.3M 12% /tmp /dev/mtdblock3 2.3M 900.0K 1.4M 39% /overlay overlayfs:/overlay 2.3M 900.0K 1.4M 39% / tmpfs 512.0K 0 512.0K 0% /dev /dev/sdcard/sd1 6.2G 14.6M 5.9G 0% /sd
Now, open other Kali Linux terminal and get SSH access to Pineapple Nano and update the packages.
root@Pineapple:~# opkg update
2) Install Kismet in the Pineapple Nano
Pineapple Nano has not enough space internally to install things. I recommend you to install your new applications or packages in the SD.
root@Pineapple:~# opkg list | grep kismet kismet-client - 2013-03-R1b-1 - An 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. This package contains the kismet text interface client. kismet-drone - 2013-03-R1b-1 - An 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. This package contains the kismet remote sniffing.and monitoring drone. kismet-server - 2013-03-R1b-1 - An 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. This package contains the kismet server. root@Pineapple:~# # opkg --dest sd install kismet-server root@Pineapple:~# # opkg --dest sd install kismet-client
3) Sharing the Android ‘s GPS with the WIFI Pineapple Nano
To do this, we need to connect our Android Mobile to the Pineapple USB 2.0 Host port and from Android share the GPS signal by using ShareGPS app. Before, let’s go to install ADB (Android Debug Bridge) in the Pineapple.
root@Pineapple:~# opkg --dest sd install adb Installing adb (android.5.0.2_r1-1) to sd... Downloading https://www.wifipineapple.com/nano/packages/adb_android.5.0.2_r1-1_ar71xx.ipk. Configuring adb.
Now, from your Pineapple SSH terminal start the ADB service and check if your Android Mobile is recognized for the Pineapple Nano. Before, to enable USB Debugging and enable USB Tethering in your Mobile.
My Android Mobile is recognized with
root@Pineapple:~# lsusb Bus 001 Device 009: ID 2a47:0004 Bus 001 Device 004: ID 05e3:0745 Genesys Logic, Inc. Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0cf3:9271 Atheros Communications, Inc. AR9271 802.11n Bus 001 Device 002: ID 058f:6254 Alcor Micro Corp. USB Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Start ADB service in Pineapple Nano.
root@Pineapple:~# adb devices * daemon not running. starting it now on port 5037 * * daemon started successfully * List of devices attached AB010682 unauthorized
In your Android Mobile is prompted to accept connection from Pineapple. Accept It and run again
ADB. You have to see the next as shown below.
root@Pineapple:~# adb devices List of devices attached AB010682 device
Now, in your Android install the ShareGPS app from Google Play Store. After that, start the app and share the GPS signal.
Finally, You are ready to use the shared Android’s GPS signal. Let’s to check it.
root@Pineapple:~# adb forward tcp:50000 tcp:50000 root@Pineapple:~# telnet localhost 50000 $GPGGA,181216.000,4138.5572,N,00221.8326,E,1,5,1.47,202.2,M,51.1,M,,*54 $GPGSA,A,3,19,25,24,15,12,,,,,,,,1.70,1.47,0.85*05 $GPGSV,3,1,10,12,65,031,34.4,25,61,286,31.7,24,54,116,14.2,14,43,295,*66 $GPGSV,3,2,10,29,26,197,25.8,02,21,102,26.9,19,17,041,13.4,06,16,061,17.8*7C $GPGSV,3,3,10,15,09,174,20.0,31,03,303,*6A $GPRMC,181216.000,A,4138.5572,N,00221.8326,E,0.000,104.39,250216,,,A*5B $GPVTG,104.39,T,,M,0.000,N,0.000,K,A*32 $GPACCURACY,4.6*0A $GPGGA,181217.000,4138.5572,N,00221.8326,E,1,5,1.47,202.2,M,51.1,M,,*55 $GPGSA,A,3,19,25,24,15,12,,,,,,,,1.70,1.47,0.85*05 $GPGSV,3,1,10,12,65,031,34.8,25,61,286,31.6,24,54,116,14.2,14,43,295,*6B $GPGSV,3,2,10,29,26,197,23.7,02,21,102,26.9,19,16,041,13.4,06,16,061,17.8*74 $GPGSV,3,3,10,15,09,174,19.6,31,03,303,*66 $GPRMC,181217.000,A,4138.5572,N,00221.8326,E,0.000,104.39,250216,,,A*5A $GPVTG,104.39,T,,M,0.000,N,0.000,K,A*32 $GPACCURACY,4.5*09 $GPGGA,181218.000,4138.5572,N,00221.8326,E,1,5,1.47,202.2,M,51.1,M,,*5A $GPGSA,A,3,19,25,24,15,12,,,,,,,,1.70,1.47,0.85*05 $GPGSV,3,1,10,12,65,031,34.8,25,61,286,31.6,24,54,116,14.2,14,43,295,*6B $GPGSV,3,2,10,29,26,197,21.6,02,21,102,26.4,19,16,041,13.4,06,16,061,13.8*7E $GPGSV,3,3,10,15,09,174,19.3,31,03,303,*63 $GPRMC,181218.000,A,4138.5572,N,00221.8326,E,0.000,104.39,250216,,,A*55 $GPVTG,104.39,T,,M,0.000,N,0.000,K,A*32 ^C
telnet localhost 50000 you will see in
green on the ShareGPS app connections “Connected” instead of “Listening”. That verifies Pineapple connected to Android’s GPS, also you will see some characters in your terminal demonstrating that everything works.
4) Configuration of Kismet:
The WIFI Pineapple Nano has 2 Wireless NICs:
root@Pineapple:~# iwconfig lo no wireless extensions. usb0 no wireless extensions. wlan1 IEEE 802.11bgn ESSID:off/any Mode:Managed Access Point: Not-Associated Tx-Power=20 dBm RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:off Power Management:off wlan0-1 IEEE 802.11bgn Mode:Master Tx-Power=17 dBm RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Power Management:off wlan0 IEEE 802.11bgn Mode:Master Tx-Power=17 dBm RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Power Management:off eth0 no wireless extensions. br-lan no wireless extensions.
I’m going to use
wlan1 to capture the 802.11 traffic, in fact, the
wlan1 will be configured in
monitor mode as shown below:
root@Pineapple:~# ifconfig wlan1 down root@Pineapple:~# iwconfig wlan1 mode monitor root@Pineapple:~# ifconfig wlan1 up
Check again the wireless interfaces. The
wlan1 NIC should be in
root@Pineapple:~# iwconfig wlan1 wlan1 IEEE 802.11bgn Mode:Monitor Frequency:2.412 GHz Tx-Power=20 dBm RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Power Management:off
5) Configuration of Kismet: MAC Address Manufacturer
Kismet by default hasn’t the MAC Address Manufacturer database, I have to download it from the Wireshark web portal and copy it to
root@Pineapple:~# wget -O /sd/manuf http://anonsvn.wireshark.org/wireshark/trunk/manuf root@Pineapple:~# ln -s /sd/manuf /etc/manuf root@Pineapple:~# ln -s /sd/manuf /sd/etc/manuf
6) Configuration of Kismet: Installing and configuring GPSd
GPSdis a service daemon that monitors one or more GPSes or AIS receivers attached to a host computer through serial or USB ports, making all data on the location/course/velocity of the sensors available to be queried on TCP port 2947 of the host computer. (http://www.catb.org/gpsd)
GPSd is not available in the current repository of OpenWRT (Chaos Calmer 15.05) used for WIFI Pineapple Nano. Not problem, we can install the all GPSd packages for an older version of OpenWRT.
The packages to be installed are:
Download and install them.
root@Pineapple:~# cd /sd root@Pineapple:/sd# wget https://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09/ar71xx/generic/packages/libgps_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# wget https://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09/ar71xx/generic/packages/libgpsd_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# wget https://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09/ar71xx/generic/packages/gpsd_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# wget https://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09/ar71xx/generic/packages/gpsd-clients_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# opkg --dest sd install libgps_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# opkg --dest sd install libgpsd_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# opkg --dest sd install gpsd_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk root@Pineapple:/sd# opkg --dest sd install gpsd-clients_3.7-1_ar71xx.ipk
Just make sure what
gpsd service not starting on boot.
You can edit
/etc/default/gpsd and set everything to
false and/or run
service gpsd stop.
root@Pineapple:~# nano /etc/default/gpsd
# Default settings for the gpsd init script and the hotplug wrapper. # Start the gpsd daemon automatically at boot time START_DAEMON="false" # Use USB hotplugging to add new USB devices automatically to the daemon USBAUTO="false" # Devices gpsd should collect to at boot time. # They need to be read/writeable, either by user gpsd or the group dialout. DEVICES="" # Other options you want to pass to gpsd GPSD_OPTIONS=""
Now, start the
GPSd service. In debug mode:
root@Pineapple:~# gpsd -F /var/run/gpsd.sock -N tcp://localhost:50000
Or run it as daemon.
root@Pineapple:~# gpsd -F /var/run/gpsd.sock tcp://localhost:50000
-F /var/run/gpsd.sockis the control socket file being used for GPSd.
tcp://localhost:50000is the shared Andoid’s GPS signal being listening on TCP port.
-Ndon’t daemonize, useful for debugging.
And to check if GPSd is working, just run this:
7) Starting Kismet for the first time
Now, we are ready to start Kismet. Kismet is a Client/Server application, firstly, I will start the Kismet Server and secondly the Kismet Client.
root@Pineapple:~# kismet_server -p /sd/.kismet -c wlan1 --daemonize
-p /sd/.kismetis the folder where Kismet Server will place the log files.
-c wlan1is the NIC in
monitor modeto be used.
- Kismet has by default the GPSd configured properly. Nothing to fo here.
- Kismet will look for the MAC Address Manufacturer file in this path
In other terminal run the next:
You should see the Kismet UI showning the Wireless Networks and connected clientes identified and reading the GPS coordinates in real-time.
8) Running Kismet for the next times
Now, if you want to avoid run all above commands one-by-one, you could create a shell script with all required commands.
Then, let’s to create a simple and dirty shell script.
root@Pineapple:~# nano /root/run_wardriving.sh #!/bin/bash echo "==> Setting wlan1 in monitor mode" ifconfig wlan1 down iwconfig wlan1 mode monitor ifconfig wlan1 up echo "==> Enabling ADB Forwarding to tcp:50000" adb forward tcp:50000 tcp:50000 echo "==> Refreshing NTP server" killall ntpd ntpd > /dev/null 2>&1 & sleep 3 echo "==> Starting GPSD with tcp://localhost:50000" service gpsd stop killall gpsd gpsd -F /var/run/gpsd.sock tcp://localhost:50000 sleep 3 echo "==> Starting Kismet server in background" killall kismet_server kismet_server -p /sd/.kismet -c wlan1 --daemonize
And executions privileges.
root@Pineapple:~# chmod +x /root/run_wardriving.sh
run_wardriving.sh will be useful when starting Kismet for the next times, because you have to do from your Android mobile and don’t from your PC or Kali Linux.
You will need something likes that shell script to start wardriving quickly and from your Android mobile.
For that, you will need also JuiceSSH App in your Android mobile to connect to WIFI Pineapple Nano and execute the
run_wardriving.sh script. ;)
Below some screenshots taken from my Android mobile and Google Earth with the WIFI Networks placed.
1) Kismet in action
2) Creating Wireless Recon Maps with Google Earth and GISKismet
GISKismet is a wireless recon visualization tool to represent data gathered using Kismet in a flexible manner. GISKismet stores the information in a database so that the user can generate graphs using SQL. GISKismet currently uses SQLite for the database and GoogleEarth / KML files for graphing. http://git.kali.org/gitweb/?p=packages/giskismet.git
- WIFI Pineapple has a tons of Security tools installed, but not tools to perform a Wardriving. For that Kismet and GPS were installed and configured. Probably in the following blog post I will explain how to create a
- Turn off your phone mobile. The new mobiles or smartphones (Android, iOS, Windows, …) have a Wireless Network Interface, they are constantly trying to connect to Wireless networks, to do that, all Mobiles send packets asking for Access Points. Kismet or other Tools taken advantage of that by capturing these packets. If you want to avoid that, just turn off your Wireless Network Interface and avoid to connect to Wireless Access Point unknown.
- The tip of the iceberg. The packets that your phone Mobile emits and captures Kismet is only basic information and does not represent any risk to you. This phase is called Security “Data gathering” or “Recognition”. The problem comes later, there are other tools that allow a targeted attack to steal important information.
- The business behind of IoT and BigData. Actually, Marketing Companies and Telecoms are monetizing with the tracking information of phone mobiles. They are taking advantage of radio/cellular signal to track in all the time. With these information the Shopping Company could identify your pattern of behavior, which stores visited, what phone mobile model do you have, etc. Only search in Google “phone mobile wireless anonymous tracking” and will be aware of the industry behind and who is making money.
- There isn’t Security awareness at Mobile World Congress. Large conferences where there are people crowd (and thousands of mobiles phone) are a breeding ground for scammers and thieves who take advantage of weaknesses or defects of the Organization, the Devices or the Apps. Then, my friend be careful with that.